Unified Nursing Research, Midwifery & Women’s Health Journal
Authors: Sulaiman Alshammari (Emergency department, Ministry of National Guard Health Affairs, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia) (Critical Care, College of Medical, Veterinary & Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, Scotland, UK).
Mohammed G. Alkhathami (Department of Respiratory Care, Prince Sultan Military College of Health Sciences, Dammam, Saudi Arabia) (Critical Care, College of Medical, Veterinary & Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, Scotland, UK).
Jihad Alsalamah (Respiratory Care Department, Prince Sultan Military Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia).
Mo Al-Haddad (School of Medicine, Dentistry & Nursing,University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK)
Background: Nurses are deemed to be at high risk of developing work-related stress and burnout. In particular, intensive care nurses, due to their frequent confrontation of intensely stressful situations, observe suffering and dying patients. Stress and burnout can lead to unjustified absenteeism, staff turnover, and deterioration in the quality of care provided. Therefore, it is crucial to identify the magnitude and risk factors of stress and burnout in order to help minimize them.
Aim: This review aims to investigate the prevalence of stress and burnout and their associated risk factors among adult intensive care nurses before and during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Methods: A systematic literature search was undertaken through Embase, Medline, and PsycINFO. The publication period was limited to studies published between 2011 and 2021, and were written in the English language. The National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute assessment tool for observational cohort and cross-sectional studies was used to guide the critical appraisal of the included studies.
Results: 12 studies were included, encompassing a total of 2,884 nurses. In the included studies, the prevalence rate of severe stress and burnout among ICU nurses varied, ranging from 3% to 23%. The most frequently reported risk factors were lower years of working experience, extensive workloads, and lack of organizational support.
Conclusion: Most ICU nurses experience moderate to severe levels of stress and burnout. Two categories of factors were associated with stress and burnout: personal and job-related. This review should therefore be of value to hospital management and policy makers to determine at-risk groups and to alleviate stress and burnout in order to prevent their detrimental effects.
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